1. Who was Julio Verne (Original French: Jules Verne)? Answer:   Jules   Verne   was   a   French   writer   (1828/1905),   born   in   Nantes   and   since   his   youth   interested   in   literature;   was   the creator    of    modern    science    fiction.    His    books    anticipated    technological    developments    and    influenced    the    vision    of    his contemporaries. Following   the   family   tradition,   from   1848,   studied   Law   in   Paris,   but   at   the   same   time   writing   poetry   and   a   column   related   to scientific narrations in the magazine ‘Museum of the Families’. Excited   by   the   scientific   advances   of   the   time,   such   as   the   steam   engine   and   electricity,   he   produced   romance   /   adventure   fiction, such   as   Journey   to   the   Center   of   the   Earth   (1864),   From   Earth   to   the   Moon   (1865),   20.000   Leagues   Under   the   Sea   (1870)   and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). In   his   most   popular   work,   The   Mysterious   Island   (1875),   he   predicted   scientific   advances   such   as   the   submarine,   the   tube   of compressed air, television and space travel. In honor of the visionary capacity and the technological futurism of the writer, we baptized our company with its name: JULIO VERNE Automação Ltda. 2. How are X-rays produced? Ans:   The   X-ray   waves   produced   in   industrial   tubes   are   generated   through   the   interaction   and   rapid   deceleration   of   electrons emitted by a filament. The filament, when subjected to an electric current, heats up and starts to release electrons. These   electrons   are   accelerated   toward   an   anode   (also   known   as   a   target),   by   applying   a   potential   difference   (usually   operating in   the   kilovolt-kV   range),   colliding   with   the   target,   there   is   an   interaction   of   the   electrons   with   the   constituent   atoms   of   the   anode, in   the   form   of   rapid   deceleration.   In   deceleration,   electrons   release   energy   in   the   form   of   heat   and   also   in   the   form   of   X-ray photons. This process of X-ray formation is known as Bremsstrahlung (German word of origin, interpreted as Braking radiation). In   this   process,   the   approximate   conversion   rate   between   electron   deceleration   and   x-ray   generation   is   from   1%   X-ray   to   99% Heat.   Therefore,   materials   with   high   melting   point   and   excellent   thermal   conductivity   are   the   most   used   in   the   manufacture   of filaments and targets in industrial X-ray tubes. 3. What is the durability of an Industrial X-ray tube? Ans:   One   of   the   limiting   factors   of   the   life   of   an   X-ray   tube   is   the   durability   of   the   filament.   The   filament   usually   made   up   of tungsten, is responsible for emitting the electrons, necessary for the generation of X-rays. The   life   expectancy   of   the   filament   is   indirectly   proportional   to   the   electric   current   applied   to   the   filament   and   is   generally   limited by the rate of vaporization of the tungsten. In   other   words,   there   is   no   way   to   simply   define   the   durability   of   an   X-ray   tube,   as   this   will   depend   on   several   other   factors,   such as conditioning and the circumstances of use of the application. The   preconditioning   factors,   periodic   maintenance   in   the   high   voltage   and   refrigeration   connections   have   relevant   influence   on the maintenance of the life of a tube, as well as the power and the working cycle of the application. The   life   expectancy   of   an   X-ray   tube   would   be   approximately   3   to   5   years   or   between   10000   and   30000   hours,   according   to manufacturer's reference COMET AG., One of the largest manufacturers of Industrial X-ray tubes in the world. However,   this   will   not   mean   that   the   x-ray   tube   life   will   meet   the   above   values   since   as   mentioned,   this   will   depend   on   the circumstances and the application. Some   companies   have   a   history   of   years   of   use,   while   others   may   need   to   replace   the   x-ray   tube   after   2   to   3   years   of   use, working in a 24/7 cycle.
Santo Andre / SP
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Email: comercial@juliovernerx.com.br
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